Ottoman historical writing of the 15th and 16th centuries played a significant role in fashioning Ottoman identity and institutionalizing the dynastic state structure during this period of rapid imperial expansion. This volume shows how the writing of history achieved these effects by examining the implicit messages conveyed by the texts and illustrations of key manuscripts. It answers such questions as how the Ottomans understood themselves within their court and in relation to non-Ottoman others; how they visualized the ideal ruler; how they defined their culture and place in the world; and what the significance of Islam was in their self-definition.
During the late Ottoman period (1856–1922), a time of contestation about imperial policy toward minority groups, music helped the Ottoman Greeks in Istanbul define themselves as a distinct cultural group. A part of the largest non-Muslim minority within a multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire, the Greek Orthodox educated elite engaged in heated discussions about their cultural identity, Byzantine heritage, and prospects for the future, at the heart of which were debates about the place of traditional liturgical music in a community that was confronting modernity and westernization. Merih Erol draws on archival evidence from ecclesiastical and lay sources dealing with understandings of Byzantine music and history, forms of religious chanting, the life stories of individual cantors, and other popular and scholarly sources of the period. Audio examples keyed to the text are available online.
Rumeli under the Ottomans is a collection of papers by Rossitsa Gradeva concerning the Ottoman Balkans between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. Gradeva is concerned primarily with the system of government and the various communities which inhabited the Balkans. In the chapter “The Ottomans”, Gradeva looks at specific cases, such as the cities of Pazarcik and Sofia, and how the Ottoman qadi courts functioned in each. She also writes on Ottoman Bulgaria’s administrative system in general. In “The Subjects”, Gradeva studies the Orthodox Christians and Jews in the Balkans, tackling questions such as church building, apostasy and Christian use of Muslim religious courts. Gradeva shows to the reader that in the past, the Balkans existed as a place of mixed ethnicities, languages and religions but without the conflict which most people associate with the region.
The retreat of the Byzantine Army from Syria in around 650 CE, in advance of the approaching Arab armies, is one that has resounded emphatically in the works of both Islamic and Christian writers, and created an enduring motif: that of the Islamic-Byzantine frontier. For centuries, Byzantine and Islamic scholars have evocatively sketched a contested border: the annual raids between the two, the line of fortified fortresses defending Islamic lands, the no-man’s land in between and the birth of jihad. In their early representations of a Muslim-Christian encounter, accounts of the Islamic-Byzantine frontier are charged with significance for a future ‘clash of civilizations’ that often envisions a polarised world. A. Asa Eger examines the two aspects of this frontier: its ideological and physical ones. By uniting an exploration of both the real and material frontier and its more ideological military and religious implications, he offers a more complex vision of this dividing line than has been traditionally disseminated. With analysis grounded in archaeological evidence as well the relevant historical and religious texts, Eger brings together a nuanced exploration of this vital element of medieval history.
This book examines Byzantine attitudes towards warfare at a time of crisis when the empire ceased to be a first rate power in the Mediterranean. It investigates the correspondence between official rhetoric and propaganda, on the one hand, and military realities, on the other. It explores the military ethos of the late Byzantine aristocracy and examines Byzantine perceptions of military leadership in comparison to contemporary western European military thinking. The organisation and nature of military operations and the role of the various groups of soldiers are explored to set Byzantine warfare in the wider geographical and cultural context. In addition, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of the influences other medieval cultures exerted on Byzantine military thought, organisation and practice.
How do we understand the systemic interactions that took place in and between different regions of prehistoric Eurasia and their consequences for individuals, groups and regions on both a theoretical and empirical basis? Such interactions helped create economic and cultural spheres that were mutually dependent yet distinct. This volume, emerging from a conference hosted in memory of Professor Andrew Sherratt in Sheffield in April 2008 and in honour of his contributions to large-scale economic history, presents some diverse archaeological responses to this problem. These range from from “world-systems” through “ritual economies” to “textile rivalries,” and address the challenge of documenting, explaining and understanding the progressively more interwoven worlds of prehistoric Eurasia.
This innovative study of the southwestern Peloponnese or Morea combines the study of unpublished Ottoman documents, other historical sources, and the results of archaeological fieldwork to explore the historical and economic geography of a particular region of Greece in the early 18th century, the period immediately following the Ottoman reconquest of this region from Venice. Central to the book is a translation of the section of an Ottoman cadastral survey (defter) listing in great detail properties in the district (kaza) of Anavarin (Navarino, modern Pylos). An introductory chapter outlines the history and methodology of the research project, while the translation is followed by chapters that provide a broader context, drawing on other sources for the information contained in the document and the principles behind its composition. A final chapter summarizes the conclusions drawn from the research, and a series of appendixes offer additional detail, including concordances of the personal- and place-names, an index of properties described, narrative histories of the two fortresses in the region, and a new English translation of the Anavarin section of the 17th-century Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi’s Travel Book (Seyahatname). A CD-ROM with a facsimile of the document itself and color versions of all illustrations is also included.
This richly illustrated study offers a comprehensive discussion of medieval and post-medieval pottery from central Greece and the Aegean, and considers the relationship between pottery and Mediterranean society, economy and culture in the post-Roman periods. The main part of the book focuses on pottery from Boeotia, particularly ceramics collected by the Cambridge and Bradford Boeotia intensive survey project. Vroom combines ceramic data from thirty selected Boeotian sites in order to create a regional classification system with 48 diagnostic wares, ranging from locally produced Red Slip wares and amphorae to imported glazed wares from Italy and Turkey. She explores the cultural, technological and socio-economic aspects of local pottery production and distribution, using archaeological, documentary and ethnographic evidence, but also considers the wider picture when looking at the imported tin-glazed wares from the 16th to 18th centuries. In the last part of the book, Vroom combines her study of pottery with a wide range of documentary and pictorial sources to discuss the history of dining habits in the eastern Mediterranean during the Late Roman, Byzantine, ‘Turkish’ and Early Modern periods.
Epidemics, migration and territorial losses led to population decline in early nineteenth-century Turkey. In response, Ottoman elites began a programme of population growth. Balsoy uses previously untapped archival sources to examine these developments, arguing that these changes caused reproduction to become a political experience.
Orthodox Christians, as well as other non-Muslims of the Ottoman Empire, have long been treated as insular and homogenous entities, distinctly different and separate from the rest of the Ottoman world. Despite this view prevailing in mainstream historiography, some scholars have suggested recently that non-Muslim life was not as monolithic and rigid as is often supposed.
In an endeavour to understand the ties among Christians within the administrative, social and economic structures of the imperial and Orthodox Christian worlds, Ayşe Ozil engages in a rarely undertaken comparative analysis of Ottoman, Greek and European archival sources. Using the hitherto under-explored region of Hüdavendigar in the heartland of the empire as a case study, she questions commonplace assumptions about the meaning of ethno-religious community within a Middle Eastern imperial framework.
Offering a more nuanced investigation of Ottoman Christians by connecting Ottoman and Greek history, which are often treated in isolation from one another, this work sheds new light on communal existence.
Bugün Mustafapaşa adını almış olan Sinasos,1920’li yıllara kadar halkının çoğunluğu Rumlardan oluşan, üç bin nüfuslu bir Kapadokya kasabasıydı. Ürgüp’ün beş kilometre kadar güneyindeki bu kasaba, kendine özgü mimarisi, eğitimli ve yetenekli insanlarıyla ‘Doğu’nun incisi’ olarak anılırdı. 1924 yılında uygulanan Türk-Yunan nüfus mübadelesiyle vatanlarını terk etmek zorunda kalan Rumlar, kasabalarından ayrılmadan önce, Mübadeleye tabi tutulan başka hiçbir yerde örneği görülmeyen bir şey yaptılar: İki fotoğrafçı tutarak kasabalarının fotoğraflarını çektirdiler ve bunları bir albümde bir araya getirerek ölümsüzleştirdiler. Konaklar, kiliseler, okullar, köprü ve çeşmelerin yer aldığı bu albüm, gündelik hayattan görüntüleri, eğlenceleri, yerel kıyafetleri ve Sinasos toplumunun çeşitli simalarını da yansıtıyordu.
Kapadokya Rum cemaatlerinin tarihi konusunda derin bilgiye sahip olan Evangelia Balta’nın hazırladığı bu kitap, “Doğu’nun İncisi Sinasos” albümündeki fotoğrafları Yunanistan’daki diğer kurumsal ve kişisel arşivlerdeki görsel unsurlarla zenginleştirirken, Sinasos’un eski sakinlerinin anlatılarıyla birleştiriyor.
The Burden of Silence is the first monograph on Sabbateanism, an early modern Ottoman-Jewish messianic movement, tracing it from its beginnings during the seventeenth century up to the present day. Initiated by the Jewish rabbi Sabbatai Sevi, the movement combined Jewish, Islamic, and Christian religious and social elements and became a transnational phenomenon, spreading througout Afro-Euroasia. When Ottoman authorities forced Sevi to convert to Islam in 1666, his followers formed messianic crypto-Judeo-Islamic sects, Donmes, which played an important role in the modernization and secularization of Ottoman and Turkish society and, by extension, Middle Eastern society as a whole. Using Ottoman, Jewish, and European sources, Sisman examines the dissemination and evolution of Sabbeateanism in engagement with broader topics such as global histories, messianism, mysticism, conversion, crypto-identities, modernity, nationalism, and memory. By using flexible and multiple identities to stymie external interference, the crypto-Jewish Donmes were able to survive despite persecution from Ottoman authorities, internalizing the Kabbalistic principle of a “burden of silence” according to which believers keep their secret on pain of spiritual and material punishment, in order to sustain their overtly Muslim and covertly Jewish identities. Although Donmes have been increasingly abandoning their religious identities and embracing (and enhancing) secularism, individualism, and other modern ideas in the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey since the nineteenth century, Sisman asserts that, throughout this entire period, religious and cultural Donmes continued to adopt the “burden of silence” in order to cope with the challenges of messianism, modernity, and memory.
Food is a marker of identity, culture, and class, and it denotes power, routine, leisure, and celebration. Despite its importance to every aspect of historical research, this topic has not been sufficiently explored in Ottoman history. This volume places the study of food in the mainstream of Ottoman history by analizing major issues–origins, identity, minorities, Ottomanization, the “golden age,” foreign relations, the nature of modernity– all from the perspective of food.
The Balyan family were a dynasty of architects, builders and property owners who acted as the official architects to the Ottoman Sultans throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Originally Armenian, the family is responsible for some of the most famous Ottoman buildings in existence, many of which are regarded as masterpieces of their period – including the Dolmabahçe Palace (built between 1843 and 1856), parts of the Topkapi Palace, the Çiragan Palace and the Ortaköy Mosque. Forging a unique style based around European contemporary architecture but with distinctive Ottoman flourishes, the family is an integral part of Ottoman history. As Alyson Wharton’s beautifully illustrated book reveals, the Balyan’s own history, of falling in and out of favour with increasingly autocratic Sultans, serves as a record of courtly power in the Ottoman era and is uniquely intertwined with the history of Istanbul itself.
In the late 1980s, the Alevis, at that time thought to be largely assimilated into the secular Turkish mainstream, began to assert their difference as they never had before. The question of Alevism’s origins and its relation to Islam and to Turkish culture became a highly contested issue. According to the dominant understanding, Alevism is part of the Islamic tradition, although located on its margins. It is further assumed that Alevism is intrinsically related to Anatolian and Turkish culture, carrying an ancient Turkish heritage, leading back into pre-Islamic Central Asian Turkish pasts.
Dressler argues that this knowledge about the Alevis-their demarcation as “heterodox” but Muslim and their status as carriers of Turkish culture-is in fact of rather recent origins. It was formulated within the complex historical dynamics of the late Ottoman Empire and the first years of the Turkish Republic in the context of Turkish nation-building and its goal of ethno-religious homogeneity.
Bu kitap, İbrahim Müteferrika’yı ve ilk Osmanlı matbaa serüvenini konu olarak incelemektedir. Başlığını teşkil eden bu mecazi ifade, aslında araştırmamızın amacını daha iyi bir şekilde gösterir ki, bu amaç 18. yüzyılın ilk yarısında gerek Osmanlı devletinin durumu, gerekse Avrupa’daki matbaa gelişmeleri bağlamında Osmanlı toplumunun henüz tanımadığı yeni bir iletişim aletinin kullanmasına ilk attığı ürkek adımlarını anlatmak, incelemek ve değerlendirmektir. Araştırma, şu ana kadar bilinmeyen fakat çok önemli yeni bulduğumuz belgeler ışığında ilk Osmanlı matbaası hakkında görüşleri yeniden değerlendirir ve kısmen doğrultur.
Bununla beraber; araştırmanın diğer bir amacı elimizde bulunan belgelere dayanarak mümkün olduğu mertebede Müteferrika matbaasının okurlar arasındaki gerçek başarısı ve Osmanlı toplumunun değişik kesitler tarafından nasıl ve ne derecede kabul edildiğinin tespitidir. Çünkü ilk Osmanlı matbaasının toplumsal tarihine açıklık getirdiğimiz takdirde onun el yazması kültüründen basma kitap kültürüne geçiş sürecindeki ehemmiyeti ve katkısını daha objektif bir şekilde değerlendirebiliriz.
Constantine, Divine Emperor of the Christian Golden Age offers a radical reassessment of Constantine as an emperor, a pagan, and a Christian. The book examines in detail a wide variety of evidence, including literature, secular and religious architectural monuments, coins, sculpture, and other works of art. Setting the emperor in the context of the kings and emperors who preceded him, Jonathan Bardill shows how Constantine’s propagandists exploited the traditional themes and imagery of rulership to portray him as having been elected by the supreme solar God to save his people and inaugurate a brilliant golden age. The author argues that the cultivation of this image made it possible for Constantine to reconcile the long-standing tradition of imperial divinity with his monotheistic faith by assimilating himself to Christ.
The Mediterranean, or ‘Middle Sea’, has long been regarded as the symbolic centre of European civilization. The binding water between Turkey, the Middle East, the trading communities of North Africa, and the European powerhouses Italy, France and Greece, a history of this sea is a new and vital way of understanding the history of the societies which have flourished in the region.
The Islands of the Eastern Mediterranean charts the story of the water as both connector and border, and analyses the islands role in world history. From Mehmed II’s efforts to conquer the old Roman Empire, through the claims of Rhodes and the role of the Aegean Islands in Ottoman international relations, to the British in Cyprus and the present-day tensions surrounding the region.
The past decade has witnessed a remarkable momentum in the advancement of archaeomalacological research but there is still a lot of room for progress. These ten papers are the second published proceedings of the archaeomalacology sessions organised by ICAZ (Mexico City, 2006). The contributions revisit important archaeological issues such as provenance of raw materials, dye production and the secondary uses of industrial shell waste, the role of shell artefacts in the symbolic world of diverse civilisations, technology and early cross-regional exchange networks. All of the papers testify to the necessity and merits of detailed analytical research; most demonstrate the indispensability of the information we obtain from experimental archaeology and archaeological context.
Using a plethora of hitherto unused and underutilized sources from the Ottoman, British, and Iranian archives, The Ottoman-Iranian Borderlands (1843-1914) traces seven decades of intermittent work by Russian, British, Ottoman, and Iranian technical and diplomatic teams to turn an ill-defined and highly porous area into an internationally recognized boundary. By examining the process of boundary negotiation by the international commissioners and their interactions with the borderland peoples they encountered, the book tells the story of how the Muslim world’s oldest borderland was transformed into a bordered land. It details how the borderland peoples, whose habitat straddled the frontier, responded to those processes as well as to the ideas and institutions that accompanied their implementation. It shows that the making of the boundary played a significant role in shaping Ottoman-Iranian relations and in the identity and citizenship choices of the borderland peoples.
Iasos is an important archaeological site on the southwest coast of Turkey, and one of the very few in this region to have yielded substantial Bronze Age levels and structures, especially for the second millennium BC. This volume presents the main discoveries made by Doro Levi and Clelia Laviosa during their excavations of the 1960s and 1970s in the settlement area, and provides important new evidence for the study of Anatolian settlement history and material culture, Aegean and Anatolian Bronze Age networks of interaction, the ‘Minoan’ eruption of Santorini, and the phenomenon of Minoanisation in the Aegean.
Nicholas V. Artamonoff left behind a photographic puzzle of over one thousand images. He was a student and engineer, who, while studying and living at Robert College in Istanbul, gained an appreciation for the city’s history and culture. With his Rollei camera, he captured Byzantine remains, ntering nooks and crannies of fortifications and cisterns. He strolled through the city in the footsteps of architectural historians and archaeologists who explored and uncovered Byzantine Istanbul. his interests were broad: they ranged from imposing churches to the smallest details of architectural sculpture, from bustling marketplaces to the diligent work of lone craftsmen. The abundance of subjects es the Nicholas V. Artamonoff Collection rich and engaging, providing a glimpse into the diverse urban environment in which he lived, and into the versatile photographer he was
Ermeni Alfabesi’nin bulunuşunun 1600. yılı vesilesiyle, Türkiye Ermenileri Patrikliği tarafından hazırlanan bu kitap, kendi kendine Ermenice öğrenmek isteyenlere kılavuzluk edecektir. Kitap, Batı Ermenicesi’ni bilmeyenler için, bir asırdan daha uzun bir süre sonra hazırlanan ilk çalışmadır. Ders kitabı niteliğindeki çalışma, daha ilk sayfadan Ermeni Alfabesi’ni öğretmeye başlar. Daha sona ise dilbilgisi kuralları öğretilir. Kitabın ek kısmında, Ermenice kelimelerin yanında Latince okunuşları da bulunan, Ermenice’den Türkçe’ye sözlük de bulunmaktadır. 264 sayfadan oluşan kitap, 16.3*23.4 cm ebatlarındadır. Kitap, H. Şükrü Ilıcak ve Rakel Goşgaryan’ın ortak çalışmasıyla yayına hazırlanırken, kapak tasarımı Krikor Sahakoğlu tarafından yapılmıştır. Kitap ilk kez yayınlandıktan sonra, okur tarafından ilgi görmüş ve tüketilmiştir. 2007’de kitabın 2. Baskısı gerçekleştirilmiştir.
This book discusses the transformation of southeast Anatolia during the 19th century. The analysis, which revolves around cotton production in the Adana Plain, enriches our knowledge of how people from different backgrounds came together to build a new social milieu in the late Ottoman period. Through the analysis of the dynamics between the multi-layered processes of sedentarization, Egypt s experience with cotton cultivation, the extension of the cultivated area via large scale landholding patterns, and the establishment of the brand new port-city of Mersin, this book shows how former nomads and settlers, many of whom had arrived there only recently, created a commercially viable region almost from scratch in an age of changing state-society relations.”
Based on micro-level research of the District of Jerusalem, this book addresses some of the most crucial questions concerning the Ottoman empire in a time of crisis and disorientation: decline and decentralization, the rise of the notable elite, the urban-rural-pastoral nexus, agrarian relations and the encroachment of European economy. At the same time it paints a vivid picture of life in an Ottoman province. By integrating court record, petitions, chronicles and even local poetry, the book recreates a historical world that, though long vanished, has left an indelible imprint on the city of Jerusalem and its surroundings.