Antik duvar resimleri gecmiste kalan bir kulturun tanigi olarak izleyeni antik dunyaya alir goturur, onlari yaptiranla izleyenler arasinda bir iletisim aracina donusur. Cok uzun sure Ephesos’ta duvar resimleri uvey evlat muamelesi gormus ve gunisigina cikarilan anitlarin yan urunleri olarak degerlendirilmistir. Ephesos’taki duvar resimleri sadece herkesin rahatlikla gezip gorebildigi Yamac Evler’dekilerle sinirli degildir. Bu yayinla Ephesos’taki duvar resimleri ilk kez genis kapsamli ve ayrintili sekilde inceleniyor, yeni bir kronoloji ve tarihleme oneriliyor. Yamac Evler’den Aziz Paulos Magarasi’na kadar tum verilerin degerlendirildigi yayinda Hellenistik donemden Bizans donemine kadar genis bir zaman dilimi cok sayida renkli resimle birlikte okuyucuya sunuluyor.
This three-volume work completes the editors’ comprehensive survey of the Roman and Byzantine remains of Lycia and Pamphylia in south-western Turkey. Drawing on archaeological and written sources, the study describes the political and social history of the region, its churches and monasteries, its economy, its settlements and buildings, and its cities. The emphasis throughout is on identifying places and sites, all of which are described in detail in the second volume. This includes those places identified and discussed in Tabula Imperii Byzantini 4, 5 and 7. The third volume presents the register of places and the plates.
Brickstamps of Constantinople is the first major catalogue and analysis of stamped bricks manufactured in Constantinople and its vicinity in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods. The text discusses the organization of the brickmaking industry, the purpose of brickstamping, and establishes for the first time a chronology for the brickstamps. On the basis of the conclusions, dates are proposed for previously undated buildings in the city, and revised dates are given for other monuments.
Saint Theodosia of Constantinople enjoys a special place among the martyrs of the iconoclastic persecutions. Her cult reached its zenith under the Byzantine dynasty of the Palaiologoi (1259-1453), which is reflected not only in three rhetorical panegyrics in her honour, but also in historical works, poetry, hymnography, and in the travel journals of Russian pilgrims.
Kotzabassi provides a detailed analysis of and a commentary on these texts, as well as a critical edition based on all known manuscripts of the texts, some of which are published for the first time.
Zur Feier des 65. Geburtstages von Prof. Friedrich Krinzinger wurde diese über 900 Seiten starke Festschrift in zwei Bänden vorgelegt, zu der insgesamt 101 Kollegen, Schüler und Freunde beigetragen haben. Ihre vielfältigen Artikel demonstrieren die Bedeutung des großen Archäologen und spiegeln dessen Forschungsinteressen wider: Band Eins widmet sich ausschließlich Ephesos – der Metropolis Asiae, in der Friedrich Krinzinger lange Jahre als Grabungsleiter wirkte. Band Zwei ist thematisch etwas breiter gestreut: Auf Aufsätze zu Velia (Krinzingers zweitem wichtigen Grabungsprojekt) folgen Beiträge zur Archäologie des Mittelmeerraums, zur römischen Archäologie in Österreich und schließlich zu Kunst- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte.
James Mellaart’in 1961’de başlattığı kazılardan neredeyse 30 yıl sonra, 1993’te Çatalhöyük’te çalışmaya başlayan Ian Hodder, yepyeni bulguların ışığında Çatalhöyük’ü gündeme taşıyor. Çatalhöyük-Leopar’ın Öyküsü, Hodder ve ekibinin Anadolu’nun kalbine açılan yolculuklarının ilginç bulgularını ortaya koyuyor. Hodder’in anlatımına, 150’ye yakın fotoğraf, çizim ve illustrasyon eşlik ediyor..
Diese Festgabe enthält 19 Beiträge von Freunden, Weggefährten und Schülern Kemal Beydillis auf Deutsch und auf Türkisch. Aufsätze über deutsch-osmanische (deutsch-türkische) Beziehungen spiegeln einen wichtigen wissenschaftlichen Schwerpunkt des Geehrten wider; Artikel über osmanische Politik und Kulturgeschichte, vornehmlich des 18. bis frühen 20. Jahrhunderts bezeichnen einen weiteren. Sie beziehen auch die Modernisierung des osmanischen Bildungswesens ein, einen Bereich, in dem Kemal Beydilli bahnbrechend gewirkt hat. In den weiten Horizont seiner Interessen fügen sich dann aber auch Beiträge über frühere Epochen ein, deren Bogen sich von literaturhistorischen Betrachtungen über demographische und kunsthistorische Themen bis hin zu sprachwissenschaftlichen Analysen spannt.
The Neolithic saw the spread of the first farmers, and the formation of settled villages throughout Europe. Traditional archaeology has interpreted these changes in terms of population growth, economic pressures and social competition, but in “The Domestication of Europe” Ian Hodder works from a new, controversial theory focusing instead on the enormous expansion of symbolic evidence from the homes, settlements and burials of the period. Why do the figurines, decorated pottery, elaborate houses and burial rituals appear and what is their significance? The author argues that the symbolism of the Neolithic must be interpreted if we are to understand adequately the associated social and economic changes. He suggests that both in Europe and the Near East a particular set of concepts was central to the origins of farming and a settled mode of life. These concepts relate to the house and home – termed “domus” – and they provided a metaphor and a mechanism for social and economic transformation. As the wild was brought in and domesticated through ideas and practices surrounding the domus, people were brought in and settled into the social and economic group of the village. Over the following millennia cultural practices relating to the domus continued to change and develop, until finally overtaken by a new set of concepts which became socially central, based on the warrior, the hunter and the wild.
Des Cariens, qui vivaient dans le sud-ouest de l’Asie Mineure, on connaît la langue et l’écriture, les monnaies, les divinités et les lieux sacrés, ainsi que quelques éléments de l’organisation politique, notamment le Koinon. De leur culture matérielle, en revanche, on ne sait que très peu de choses. Or leurs pratiques funéraires étaient suffisamment singulières pour qu’au ve s. av. J.-C., Thucydide (1.8) écrive : ” [Lors de la purification de l’île de Délos], il apparut que plus de la moitié des théké étaient des tombes cariennes. On s’en aperçut en observant l’équipement guerrier enseveli avec les corps et le mode de sépulture, qui est encore celui des Cariens aujourd’hui.” Souvent réduit à ses éléments les plus emblématiques et les plus fameux, tels le Mausolée d’Halikarnasse (Bodrum) et les tombes rupestres à façade de “temple” de Kaunos (Dalyan), le monde funéraire carien n’avait, jusqu’alors, jamais fait l’objet d’une étude exhaustive. Fort de ce constat, l’auteur nous livre ici une synthèse inédite sur l’espace funéraire à l’échelle d’un vaste territoire, comme l’était celui de la Carie antique. A partir d’un enregistrement rigoureux des structures architectura-les encore conservées aujourd’hui, il définit avec clarté les multiples facettes des tombes cariennes, en mettant en évidence toutes les transformations et évolutions qui ont pu intervenir au cours de l’histoire de cette région. Le lecteur peut ainsi découvrir la diversité des plans et des traitements qui caractérisent les monuments funéraires de Carie. Ces tombes ne sont pas seulement des structures fonctionnelles destinées à offrir un lieu de repos au défunt. Elles sont aussi, par leur monumentalité, porteuses d’une plus large dimension, devenant ainsi les témoins les plus tangibles de la réussite aussi bien politique qu’économique des élites cariennes, ainsi que de la formation d’une culture unique à la charnière des blocs grec et perse. Il s’agit donc d’une étude qui fera date. Indispensable à tous ceux qui s’intéressent de près ou de loin à l’histoire de la Carie de l’époque classique à l’époque hellénistique, elle constituera également une référence pour l’historien de l’empire perse comme pour celui des royaumes hellénistiques.
In ihrer Munchener Dissertation hat die Autorin alle Terrakotten aus Amisos, dieser an Traditionen reichen antiken Hafenstadt an der Sudkuste des Schwarzen Meeres, zusammengestellt, kommentiert und in den Rahmen der pontisch-kleinasiatischen Kunstgeschichte unter Berucksichtigung anderer Kunstgattungen wie der Keramik, Bronzen, Munzen, Marmorplastiken und des musivischen Materials eingeordnet. Ein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte Kleinasiens und des Schwarzmeergebietes. “Fur die umfassende, exemplarische Vorlage und Aufschlusselung und die umsichtige Bewertung des grossen, noch kaum bekannten Materialkomplexes kann man nur dankbar sein.” Thetis
The important Ionian city known in antiquity as Miletus (Palatia) became part of the Menteshe Emirate in the first half of the 13th century under the name of Balat. The most important of Menteshe period architecture is the mosque complex with a theological school (madrasa) and two public baths or hammams, built immediately after Ilyas Bey returned to the throne in 1402. The mosque and madrasa, built in a broad walled garden, share a common courtyard. In the northwest area of the madrasa are the remains of a structure whose function remains uncertain. Archaeological excavations in 1994 revealed the foundations of rooms belonging to another madrasa which was later added to the complex, extending parallel to the garden wall on the west of the existing madrasa. Two hammams accepted as being part of the original complex are located to the northeast of the madrasa. The present volume presents the recent work done at the complex.
In a unique study of rural administration in the Ottoman empire, Amy Singer explores the relationship between Palestinian peasants and Ottoman officials in mid-sixteenth-century Jerusalem. Using court records, the author describes the mechanisms of tax collection and other aspects of local administration. The book emphasizes the interactive nature of Ottoman officialdom, which, while obliged to extract revenues from the peasants and impress them with its imperial authority, was profoundly influenced by local conditions and traditional practices.
This volume explores the transition from the old regime to modern forms of sovereignty in the Middle East. By rereading Tocqueville’s classic, The Old Regime and the French Revolution, through an Ottoman prism this study probes the unresolved paradoxes in his analysis of institutional change while documenting an old regime that has remained in the shadows of modern history. Each section of the book explores a specific dimension of Ottoman sovereignty – space, hierarchy, and vernacular governance – through a detailed examination of a particular 18th century document. An Ottoman perspective on the eighteenth century not only furnishes critical pieces of the old-regime puzzle. It also illustrates how an uncritical reception of Tocqueville’s model of modernization has obscured the ongoing interaction between the “Eurasian” and Westphalian state systems and parallel processes of sociopolitical change.
This 1976 text is a pioneering study in the applications to archaeology of modern statistical and quantitative techniques. The authors show how these techniques, when sensitively employed, can dramatically extend and refine the information presented in distribution maps and other analyses of spatial relationships. Techniques of interpretation ‘by inspection’ can now be made more powerful and rigorous; at the same time interest has turned from the examination of such sites and artefacts as ‘things’ to the spatial relationships between such things, their relationships to one another and to landscape features, soils and other resources. This book was the first to apply the available techniques systematically to the special problems and interests of archaeologists. It also demonstrates to geographers and other social scientists who may be familiar with analogous applications in their own fields the exciting interdisciplinary developments this facilitates, for example in studies of exchange networks, trade and settlement patterns, and cultural history.
This is the most detailed study to date of one of the most impressive feats of engineering of the entire Roman period and its equally impressive early medieval survival and rennovation. It presents a synthesis of historical material combined with the results of ten years of fieldwork. It describes and plots the elaborate system of water channels, aqueducts, and urban cisterns which made up the most extended water supply network in the Roman world. It also includes catalogues of masons’ marks and Christian iconography to be found on the structures, as well as translations of all mentions of the system in the historical sources. Accompanied throughout with photographs, maps, plans and elevations, this book is a must for anyone interested in Roman and Byzantine engineering.
Muslim beliefs have inspired charitable giving for over fourteen centuries, yet Islamic history has rarely been examined from this perspective. In Charity in Islamic Societies, Amy Singer explains the basic concepts and institutions of Muslim charity, including the obligation to give on an annual basis. Charitable endowments shaped Muslim societies and cultures in every era. This book demonstrates how historical circumstances, social status, gender, age and other factors interacted with religious ideals to create a rich variety of charitable practices, from the beginnings of Islam to the present day. Using written texts, buildings, images and objects to anchor the discussions in each chapter, the author explores the motivations for charity, its impact on the rich and the poor, and the politicisation of charity. This lucidly written book will capture the attention of anyone who is interested in the nature of Islamic society and the role of philanthropy throughout history.
For millennia, walled citadels have served both as residences for rulers and military forces and as sacred centers embodying the power of the elite. The outcome of a symposium organized by Koc University’s Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations, the essays in this volume are by leading scholars on the area that is now Turkey, from the first millennium BC through the fourteenth century AD. They examine the phenomenon of citadels in a comparative perspective in Anatolia and neighboring regions. Archaeology, art history, and history are brought to bear on the phenomenon of the citadel in its urban context
Is the universe alive? Are there hidden connections within it, revealed in history and in sacred texts? Can we understand or even learn to control these secrets? Have we neglected an entirely separate science that works according to a different set of principles?
Certainly by the time of the Renaissance in Europe, there were many thinkers who answered in the affirmative to all of these questions. Despite the growth of modern science and a general disenchantment of the world, the ‘occult’ or ‘esoteric’ tradition has evolved in the West, manifesting itself in such diverse groups as the Freemasons, the Mormons, Christian Scientists, the Theosophists, New Ageists and American Fundamentalism. Paradoxically, the turn to science and the triumph of evolution in the nineteenth century produced an explosion of occultism, increasing its power as a kind of super-science. Gothic, fantastic, and supernatural fiction flourished, while Spiritualism emerged as a serious inquiry into the possibility of contacting the dead. After all, if you could communicate with the living at great distances, why should a similar teletechnology not be possible to the other world?
Disciplines had not yet hardened, and the borders were as yet undefined between parapsychology and psychology, between mythology and anthropology. Mesmerism became hypnotism, and the subconscious came to be recognized as more than a medium’s stomping ground. This book describes the growth and meandering path of the occult tradition over the past five hundred years, and shows how the esoteric world view fits together.
Bizans İmparatorluğu olmasaydı bugünkü Avrupa farklı görünür, önemli ölçüde yoksul kalırdı. Doğu Akdeniz’de zamanla bir Orta Çağ hükümdarlığına dönen Roma İmparatorluğu, gittikçe daha fazla Hıristiyanlıkla şekillense de, Antik Dönem’in kültürel mirasını her zaman canlı tutmuştur. Bizans İmparatorluğu Fars ve Arap ordularına karşı uzun zaman bir kale görevini görmüş aynı zamanda da Avrupa ile Doğu arasında önemli bir köprü oluşturmuştur. Konstantinopolis, imparatorun makam, idare ve patriklik merkezi olmasının yanı sıra bilim ve sanat merkezi ve tabii ki Doğu Akdeniz’in en önemli liman kenti olması bakımından imparatorluğun kalbi idi.
Bizans sadece Avrupa hukuk sisteminde ve ortodoks kilisesinde varlığını sürdürmekle kalmamış, Avrupa’nın ve Doğu’daki komşularının yaşam biçimini, kültür ve sanatını da çeşitli şekillerde beslemiştir.
Efes’in Bizans Dönemi’ndeki tarihi büyük bir Roma kentinin transformasyonuna pragmatik bir örnektir. Burada sunulan derleme yayında farklı fenomenler detay çalışmalar içerisinde tartışılacak ve bundan yola çıkılarak on yüzyıldan fazla bir zamandaki şehir gelişiminin genel bir resmi çizilecektir.
This book presents an interdisciplinary study of the role of spirituality and religious ritual in the emergence of complex societies. Involving an eminent group of natural scientists, archaeologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and theologians, this volume examines Çatalhöyük as a case study. A nine-thousand-year old town in central Turkey, Çatalhöyük was first excavated in the 1960s and has since become integral to understanding the symbolic and ritual worlds of the early farmers and village-dwellers in the Middle East. It is thus an ideal location for exploring theories about the role of religion in early settled life. This book provides a unique overview of current debates concerning religion and its historical variations. Through exploration of themes including the integration of the spiritual and the material, the role of belief in religion, the cognitive bases for religion, and religion’s social roles, this book situates the results from Çatalhöyük within a broader understanding of the Neolithic in the Middle East.
This publication in two volumes represents the material output from the study by historians, archaeologists, historians of art, and culture anthropologists of the impact of the heritage of Rome and Constantinople on the processes of formation of the Christian medieval civilisation in Central, Eastern, Northern and South-Eastern Europe.
The authors focused in their analyses mainly on phenomena observed in the region of Europe which during Late Antiquity was not a part of the Roman Empire, in other words, had no continuity with Antiquity. The medieval change in this part of the continent may not be described as direct transformation of the Roman heritage. It was not as significant here as in other regions, since next to Rome an appreciable role was played by influence from Constantinople, and the local substrate was stronger than in the west of Europe. However, in the long run, as a result of synthesis of Romanitas, Christianitas and Barbaritas, also this newly converted zone became a part of medieval Europe accepting the heritage of Antiquity i.e. that of Rome and Constantinople in another way.
The book places strong emphasis on the question of the significance of the Byzantine civilisation on the formation of the newly converted Europe, exploring a field of study previously much less addressed by research than Latin Christianisation of the continent. This publication assists the reader in making a relatively easy comparison of archaeological evidence on Christianisation to be had from the Byzantine territory with evidence recovered from the periphery of the Byzantine civilisation, and from the part of Europe which received Christianity from Rome.
While most papers focus on phenomena taking place between AD 700 and 1200 the chronological range of the publication is the period from Late Antiquity/Early Byzantine Period until the Early Modern Era.
Volume I includes contributions from historians, art historians and archaeologists, who examined different aspects of the transformation of the newly converted Europe, and some contributions from archaeologists who propose to trace the process of Christianisation in the evidence on changing burial customs. Volume II contains contributions devoted to the subject of relics, reliquaries and private devotional objects.
Rather than subscribing to a single position, this collection informs the reader about the current state of the discipline looking at changes across the broad field of methodological, theoretical and geographical plurality. Divided into three sections, Rethinking Architectural Historiography begins by renegotiating foundational and contemporary boundaries of architectural history in relation to other fields, such as art history and archaeology. It then goes on to critically engage with past and present histories, disclosing assumptions, biases and absences in architectural historiography. It concludes by exploring the possibilities provided by new perspectives, reframing the discipline in the light of new parameters and problematics.
This timely and illustrated title reflects upon the current changes in historiographical practice, exploring potential openings that may contribute further transformation of the disciplines and theories on architectural historiography and addresses the current question of the disciplinary particularity of architectural history.
The land of Turkey has not only yielded archaeological finds essential to the formation of the field of archaeology; these finds played a crucial role in the making of a national narrative in the transition from the late Ottoman Empire to the present-day Republic. The outcome of a symposium organized by Koc University’s Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations in Istanbul, the essays in this volume critically engage with the constitution of Classical and Byzantine archaeology in Turkey, addressing such issues as the historical context of the production of knowledge, the roles of individuals and institutions in shaping scholarship, and the current and future state of the field.
Featuring eight innovative studies by prominent scholars of medieval art and architecture, this special issue of Medieval Encounters examines the specific means by which art and architectural forms, techniques, and ideas were transmitted throughout the medieval world (ca. 1000-1500). While focusing on the Mediterranean region, the collection also includes essays that expand this geographic zone into a cultural and artistic one by demonstrating contact with near and distant neighbors, thereby allowing an expanded understanding of the interconnectedness of the medieval world. The studies are united by a focus on the specific mechanisms that enabled artistic and architectural interaction, as well as the individuals who facilitated these transmissions. Authors also consider the effects and collaboration of portable and monumental arts in the creation of intercultural artistic traditions.
Imarets have long been recognized as one signature institution of the Ottoman Empire. These public kitchens were typically located in mosque complexes or multi-structured complexes, which included some or all of the following buildings: mosque, medrese, mekteb, tomb, caravansaray, sufi tekke (or tekye) , hospital, bath, market, and other structures associated with the social, economic, and cultural life of the population, usually in an urban setting. Studying imarets is yet another way to explore the Ottoman vision of conquest, empire-building, and imperial rule. The imarets were part of the multiple Ottoman provisioning systems supporting the imperial palaces, military campaigns, cities, and the annual hajj caravan to Mecca and Medina. The public kitchens operated in a society where the state and beneficent institutions held a continual and considerable role in contributing to the daily subsistence of all kinds of individuals. Ultimately, the Ottoman sultan’s preoccupation with food was in part an outgrowth of his political and military capacities, and his general responsibility to provide for his subjects. Although the precise dynamic of the emergence of imarets as a distinct institutional form is a process that remains to be traced, it was clearly a confluence of historical practices, together with the demands placed on the early Ottoman sultanate, that gave rise to the particular form of the imaret. Evliya Çelebi remarked that in all his travels he saw “nothing like our enviable institution.” At least one architectural historian claims that no earlier structures have been found that are analogous and certainly none are described in general books on Islamic architecture. The particular Ottoman origin of the imaret as a distinct architectural form is also attested by its presence throughout the Ottoman lands, Anatolia, the Balkans, and the Arab provinces, regions that did not necessarily share institutions in the pre-Ottoman period.